This paper studies the use of an electric turbogenerator (ETG) for waste energy recovery from the exhaust gas of a 13 L Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) engine. Up to 1% brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) reduction is predicted for this system at high engine loads using a validated mean value engine model. However, the addition of the ETG reduces the air-fuel equivalence ratio (λ) and increases exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate by 10%, deteriorating the engine-out smoke emissions. This challenge is addressed by decreasing the EGR valve position and the asymmetry in the twin scroll turbine. With these modifications, the predicted high load BSFC reduction is 2% and the EGR and λ approach their original values.
The HDD engine is then tested experimentally with the ETG emulated by a valve downstream of the main turbocharger. The experimental results confirm the simulation predictions with the stock engine calibration and geometry, where EGR valve sweeps show the potential of this actuator for remedying the detrimental ETG backpressure effects, which ultimately improves the combined engine and ETG BSFC by 0.6% at high loads. Combining the simulated turbo sizing and the experimental EGR valve results indicates that up to 1.6% BSFC reductions are possible for the HDD engine with an integrated ETG, without deteriorating emission levels. Finally, simulations show that during a torque step the ETG should be bypassed to avoid deterioration in the dynamic response of the engine.