The nonlinear dynamics of an automotive three-way catalyst (TWC) present a challenge to developing simple control-oriented models that are both useful for control and/or diagnostics and real-time executable within a vehicle engine-control unit (ECU). As such, we begin by developing a first-principles control-oriented TWC model and then proceed to apply simplifications. The TWC models are spatially discretized along the catalyst length to better understand and exploit the oxygen-storage dynamics. The TWC models also include the oxidation reaction of ceria by H2O, which is considered important since it represents the production of H2 within the catalyst. We present automated optimization routines to calibrate the TWC model along with a heated exhaust-gas oxygen (HEGO) sensor model using measured vehicle and emissions data. Finally, we demonstrate the combined models’ ability to accurately reproduce the measured HEGO voltage using engine feedgas constituent inputs, which is necessary for designing a robust model-based feedback controller.

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