Research into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems has shown that coordinating building climate control leads to large energy savings. However, most analyses have assumed linear dynamics not reflective of actual systems. Using a cascaded control architecture, this linear behavior can be recovered, allowing for maximum energy savings to be realized. Case studies on variable air volume, hydronic radiator, and terminal fan controlled systems demonstrate the broad application and benefits of this approach. Also, because of the architectural simplicity and lack of required a priori knowledge of system performance or characteristics, the cascaded controller can be implemented immediately in the HVAC community.

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