This paper uses the principles of electrochemistry to derive a simple second-order model of lithium-ion battery dynamics. Low-order lithium-ion battery models exist in the literature, but are typically either linear, empirical, or both. Our goal, in contrast, is to obtain a model simple enough for control design but grounded in the principles of electrochemistry. The model reduction approach used in this paper has the added advantage of leading to a novel analytic expression for the capacitance associated with voltage relaxation. A process for identifying model parameters from experiments is outlined, and experimental results are used to evaluate the validity of the model.

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