This paper presents systematic analysis and design of power split hybrid configurations using a single planetary gearset and two electric machines for human-powered vehicles. In our design methodology, the cyclist is treated as an integrated part of the powertrain, and the cyclist’s power output is augmented by the battery power, instead of being completely replaced. To obtain the optimal design, all the 12 possible power split hybrid configurations are investigated, and several performance indices, including the cyclist’s oxygen consumption, stamina reduction, and pedaling speed preference, are considered in the optimization problem to evaluate the bicycle design. The dynamic programming technique is used to solve the optimization problem. The optimal design, HyBike-i2, has the pedal connected to the carrier gear and one electric machine to the ring gear on the planetary gearset. The other electric machine and the driven wheel are connected to the sun gear. This design outperforms the normal bicycle (no power assist) and two traditional electric bicycles, and achieves substantial reduction in both the cyclist’s stamina discharge and oxygen consumption when the vehicle operates in the charge-sustaining mode.

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