Safety is one of important factors in control of mechatronic systems interacting with humans. In order to evaluate the safety of such systems, mechanical impedance is often utilized as it indicates the magnitude of reaction forces when the systems are subjected to motions. Namely, the mechatronic systems should have low mechanical impedance for improved safety. In this paper, a methodology to design controllers for reduction of mechanical impedance is proposed. For the proposed controller design, the mathematical definition of the mechanical impedance for open-loop and closed-loop systems is introduced. Then the controllers are designed for stable and unstable systems such that they effectively lower the magnitude of mechanical impedance with guaranteed stability. The proposed method is verified through case studies including simulations.

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