This project focuses on the use of magnetoresistive and sonar sensors for imminent collision detection in cars. The magnetoresistive sensors are used to measure the magnetic field from another vehicle in close proximity, so as to estimate relative position, velocity and orientation of the vehicle from the measurement.
An analytical formulation is presented for the planar variation of the magnetic field from a car as a function of two dimensional position and orientation. While this relationship itself can be used to estimate position and orientation, a challenge is posed by the fact that the parameters in the analytical function vary with the type and model of the encountered car. Since the type of vehicle encountered is not known apriori, the parameters in the magnetic field function are unknown. The use of both sonar and magnetoresisitive sensors and an adaptive estimator is shown to address this problem. While the sonar sensors do not work at very small inter-vehicle distance and have low refresh rates, their use during a short initial time duration leads to a reliable estimator. Experimental results are presented for a laboratory wheeled car door and show that planar position, relative angular position and orientation can be accurately estimated for a range of relative motions at different oblique angles.