The velocity occupancy space (VOS) algorithm was developed to allow an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to avoid moving and stationary obstacles and navigate efficiently to a goal using only uncertain sensor data. The original VOS concept was designed for an ideal, holonomic UGV that was capable of perfect, repeatable and instantaneous velocity changes. The method presented here adapts VOS through the use of extended velocity obstacles (EVOs) so that VOS can operate on experimental UGVs that suffer from actuation error. For this research, the EVOs have been designed based on the performance of a SuperDroid ATR, but they can be easily calibrated for other velocity controlled UGVs. The proposed method is validated through numerous simulations.

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