Citrus Bacterial Canker Disease (CBCD), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri, occurs in many citrus areas of the world. It has been reported in 40 different countries, on 5 continents (Asia, South Africa, Australia, South America and North America). Prior to the 1984 outbreak in Florida, the 4 known strains of the bacterium were A, B, C and Mexican bacterioses. Canker-A or Strain-A, endemic in Asia, was reported in China, India and Java in the early 1800’s, found in Japan in 1899 and in the Philippines in 1914. It affects most citrus species and hybrids. Grapefruit is especially susceptible. Strain-A was introduced into the United States from Japan on trifoliate orange seedlings in 1910. An eradication program was started in 1915 in Florida and the disease was eradicated in 1927. In South America, the Asiatic form was not found until 1957 in Brazil and 1972 in Argentina. In 1979, the A Strain broke out in the commercial citrus area of Sao Paulo State, Brazil.
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