The transporting of liquids and gases is a basic need of civilization. Many methods have been and are used, ranging from the Egyptian water jar to the modern pipe line. The method used in today’s economy depends on the kind and amount of fluid to be transported. Martinis are delivered in 2 ounce glasses by a waiter, whereas oil is transported by 6 to 16 inch pipe lines. For purposes of discussion in this paper we will assume that the requirements are such that the fluid must be delivered to a particular location at a uniform rate. Thus, with this assumption, the most economical method of transporting would be by pipe. If the pipe and valve circuit is to be designed for most economical installation and operation, there are several things that should be known at the outset.

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