The adoption of robotically assisted surgeries is increasing at a dramatic rate. The Da Vinci “was used in 80% of radical prostatectomies performed in the U.S. for 2008, just nine years after the system went on the market” [8]. The Da Vinci is but one of the systems driving the development of more versatile, more cost-effective and more autonomous systems. Robotic systems require real-time, accurate position information of the anatomy and surgical instruments to allow the surgical team to perform critical tasks. For example, Renishaw’s neuromate and Accuray’s CyberKnife both require the precise location of fiducial markers [9]. Others, like Cambridge Medical Robotics’ Versius and Medrobotics’ Flex operators rely upon active imaging or access to direct line of sight [10].

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