In high-frequency (“HF”) monopolar electrosurgery (or radio-frequency ablation), high current density causes heating of tissue adjacent to a surgical instrument. HF current passes through tissue at a frequency sufficiently high to avoid stimulation of muscle, but intentionally causes I2R heating of tissue for the purposes of ablation, dissection, and coagulation. In addition to the surgical tool, a Neutral Electrode (“NE”, often called a “ground pad”, “return electrode”, or simply “pad”) contacts the patient to complete the electrical circuit, as shown in Fig. 1.

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