Most existing transtibial prostheses are energetically passive. Amputees using passive prostheses exhibit asymmetrical gait patterns [1], consume more metabolic energy [2–3], and walk at lower speed compared with able-bodied individuals [2–3]. As a result, powered transtibial prostheses are gaining increasing popularity. Several studies have shown that powered prostheses can improve the walking performance of the amputees [4–5]. However, most studies only focus on the importance of the ankle joint and few pay attention to the effects of toe joint during walking.

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