In 1964, Dr. Barrows first introduced the standardized patients, who are individuals trained to imitate the pathological symptoms of the real patients, and involved them in teaching and clinical skills assessment for healthcare education. In recent decades, the application of the virtual patient has been rapidly grown and has been widely used in clinical or educational practice among residents, surgeons, or other medical professionals because the virtual patient is cost-effective and time-efficient [1]. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collaborated with the Foundation of Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT’IS Foundation, Zürich, Switzerland) to produce a virtual family, which is a set of anatomical computer-aided design (CAD) models of adults and children [2, 3], and those CAD models are used in electromagnetic, thermal, and computer fluid dynamics simulations. However, the meaning of virtual patients or models has varied across the recent years and more and more researchers tried to categorize the terminology of virtual patients. In general, virtual patients can be classified into seven major types including: case presentation, interactive patient scenarios, virtual patient game, high fidelity software simulation, human standardized patients, high fidelity manikins, and virtual standardized patients [4]. The virtual patients discussed in this study can be classified as interactive patient scenarios, whose application includes clinical reasoning, surgical planning, and disease diagnosis.

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