Natural human ankle motion includes dorsiflexion/plantarflexion (the major contributor to gait) as well as smaller contributions from inversion/eversion and abduction/adduction motions. Many of the commercially available passive prostheses for amputees are either stiff in all these motion directions or are compliant mainly in the dorsiflexion/plantarflexion direction. This can make it difficult for amputees to walk on uneven or sloped surfaces, and leads to increased risk of falling [1–4].
A Passive Two-Degree-of-Freedom Ankle-Foot Prosthesis
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Elley, C, & Nelson, CA. "A Passive Two-Degree-of-Freedom Ankle-Foot Prosthesis." Proceedings of the 2018 Design of Medical Devices Conference. 2018 Design of Medical Devices Conference. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. April 9–12, 2018. V001T03A004. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/DMD2018-6820
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