Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a condition characterized by temporary diminutions or cessations of breathing caused by repetitive collapse of the upper airway (UA) during sleep [1]. OSA is a common disorder — the American Academy of Sleep Medicine estimates the condition affects 29.4 million Americans — in which the muscles that hold the airway open weaken, resulting in partial or complete UA collapse during inspiration [2]. These pauses in breathing lead to blood oxygen desaturation and induce neurological arousal resulting in sleep disruption and fragmentation. The cycle of airway collapse and arousal can repeat hundreds of times per night.

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