There currently exist many cardiac assist devices for the clinical treatment of congestive heart failure, which affects nearly 5 million Americans and costs the United States health care system nearly $32 billion annually [1]. The majority of these clinical devices help to improve cardiac perfusion by utilizing a blood pump — either pulsatile or continuous flow — cannulated to the circulatory system to create a parallel bypass for blood flow. These devices are typically very effective in the short term (days to months) but are typically limited by problems associated with chronic use [2]. Some of the most prevalent complications stem from the need for long-term system anticoagulation, invasive implant surgeries, catastrophic wear and tear of mechanical parts or drivelines, and infections at the percutaneous driveline site. Therefore, there is a great medical need to develop new or improve existing technologies to minimize and/or eliminate these adverse events.

This content is only available via PDF.