Laparoscopic surgery has widely replaced open surgery due to the advantages it has for patients both during surgery and post-surgery recovery. Due to inversion and remote access to the surgical site, haptics feedback is altered with laparoscopic surgical instruments [1]. This leads to excessive exertion of force [2]. Many intra operative errors like tissue injury in laparoscopic surgery are due to texertion of large forces [2]. Over the years, virtual reality (VR) based laparoscopic surgical simulators with haptics feedback have been instrumental in teaching basic and advanced laparoscopic skills to residents and surgeons [3]. However, a major limitation in modern day VR based simulator training systems is that they do not effectively teach the bimanual impedance-based laparoscopic skills. Past studies on VR based laparoscopic training have captured the skills sets of residents and surgeons using force and psychomotor metrics [3, 4]. However, till date none have explored the effects of experience on impedance based training. In this study, we analyze the impedance skills of residents and surgeons using custom developed novel bimanual laparoscopic skills trainer.

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