Medical simulation plays a critical role in the training of surgical and medical residents. Training simulators give residents an environment to practice a wide variety of procedures where they can learn and make mistakes without harming a living patient [1]. In recent years, much research has been conducted on applying haptic or force feedback technology to surgical simulators in order to create more effective training devices [2]. Simulators such as the LapSim (laparoscopic simulator) and the PalpSim (palpitation needle insertion simulator) have both utilized haptic feedback arms to provide the physical sensation of performing surgical procedures to the user [3, 4]. The haptic simulator shown in Fig. 1 is currently in development. This virtual reality haptic robotic simulator for central venous catheterization (CVC) utilizes a haptic feedback arm to provide the feeling of a syringe being inserted into neck tissue [5].

Currently, there is little experimental data relating needle force to depth. To determine the forces necessary to program into the haptic robotic device, a force sensing syringe was developed and cadaver experiments were performed. This paper presents the development of a syringe which can accurately measure needle insertion force and the proceeding experiments conducted using this device on a fresh frozen cadaver. The results of these cadaver needle insertions are characterized into force profiles for needle insertion force that are implemented into the haptic based CVC simulator.

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