Standing from a seated position is a common, yet dynamically challenging task. Due to the vertical ascent of the body center of gravity, sit-to-stand (STS) transition requires high torque output from the knee. As a result, STS transition poses a major barrier to the mobility of individuals with lower-limb issues, including the transfemoral (TF, also known as above-knee) amputees. A study showed that unilateral TF amputees suffer from high asymmetry in ground reaction forces (53∼69%) and knee moments (110∼124%), while the asymmetry for healthy controls is less than 7% . Note that, although a powered TF prosthesis (Power Knee™) was used in this study, it generated resistance in the STS and thus produced similar results as the passive devices. The inability of existing prostheses in generating knee torque and regulating the torque delivery in the STS seriously affects the mobility of TF amputees in their daily life.
Motivated by this issue, researchers have developed numerous powered TF prostheses (e.g., Vanderbilt powered TF prostheses ). These devices are able to generate torque and power for challenging tasks such as STS transition. Making full use of such capability, however, requires an effective controller. Currently, walking control for powered prostheses has been well established, but STS control is much less investigated. Varol et al. developed a multi-mode TF prosthesis controller, in which STS is treated as a transitional motion between sitting and standing states . However, no details were provided on the rationale of the STS controller structure or the determination of the control parameters.
In this paper, a new prosthesis control approach is presented, which regulates the power and torque delivery in the STS process. Inspired by the biomechanical behavior of the knee in the STS motion, the new controller provides two desired functions (gradual loading of the knee at the beginning, and automatic adjustment of the knee torque according to motion progress) with a single equation. Combined with a simple yet reliable triggering condition, the proposed control approach is able to provide natural STS motion for the powered knee prosthesis users.