Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) has been used to treat kidney stones for decades. However, there is growing recognition that shock waves induces trauma to kidney tissue [1, 2]. The poor understanding of stone comminution mechanisms means that the design of new lithotripters is principally a practice of empiricism . A mechanistic understanding of stone comminution would provide a criterion to develop new lithotripsy systems. In this work, a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solution to the linear elastic equations was employed  to investigate the stress and displacement fields of kidney stones subject to lithotripsy shock waves. The kidney stone models were obtained from micro-computed tomography images (resolution of 20 μm) and have diameters from 2 mm to 5 mm.
- Nanotechnology Institute
Shock Wave Lithotripters With Broad Focus Result in Greater Stress in Human Kidney Stones: Numerical Simulation
Luo, H, Cleveland, RO, & Williams, JC, Jr. "Shock Wave Lithotripters With Broad Focus Result in Greater Stress in Human Kidney Stones: Numerical Simulation." Proceedings of the ASME 2008 3rd Frontiers in Biomedical Devices Conference. ASME 2008 3rd Frontiers in Biomedical Devices Conference. Irvine, California, USA. June 18–20, 2008. pp. 17-18. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/BioMed2008-38093
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