Studies of reliability in current practice indicate that reliability based on conventional methods requires a nonlinear transformation to a set of normal distributions, which effectively changes the shape of limit state function. In this paper, the general formulation of safety for aluminum elements and the associated methods of analysis are reviewed. Direct simulation is used to find the probability of failure. It is concluded that direct simulations of safety of aluminum elements of Pr (probability of failure) by failure counting is a good method to achieve acceptable safety factors.

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