Spinal fusion surgery is one of the most common surgical procedures used to alleviate lower back pain. It is estimated that between 200,000 and 300,000 spine fusion procedures performed each year in the United States [1]. There has been an increase of approximately 8% per year in the frequency of lumbar fusions in the United States since 1980 [2]. Spinal fusion is indicated for treatment of degenerative disk disease, degenerative joint disease, scoliosis, and isthmic and degenerative spondlylotisthesis when more conservative treatments have failed to achieve relief.

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