Based on the increased attention to “energy security” and “sustainable development”, it is essential to promote clean use of coal as a fuel. Typical advanced technologies are demonstrated by the pressurized fluidized-bed combined cycle (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). Focusing mainly on these two examples as the advanced energy conversion technology, related problems are reviewed. The PFBC technology is a composite technology of conventional fluidized bed and combined-cycle, in which ash, being a typical component of coal, is not melted but is removed mainly in the fluidized bed. On the other hand, the IGCC is much more complicated and ash removal is conducted by melting in the combustor. Heat released there is utilized for gasification process in the reductor installed just downstream the combustor. Even though both systems have very high potential for clean and efficient use of coal, the commercial plants are limited in a very small number or at the stage of just a demonstration plant. To extend and develop clean-coal technology in the electric power generation market, a strategy of the government on the energy technology as well as the long-term competition in the market are indispensable, otherwise related technologies as well as the engineers involved will be lost.

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