Boron-based materials (i.e., boron and its borides) are mostly semiconductors with complex structures. These structures are characterized by an arrangement of an icosahedral cluster of B12 atoms [1]. The complexity of the crystal structure gives boron-based material a high melting point and low thermal conductivity at high temperature. On the other hand, the Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivities of most bulk boron-based materials increase as temperature increases. Therefore, bulk boron-based materials are good candidates for high-temperature thermoelectric applications [2]. Due to the unique properties of bulk boron-based materials, one-dimensional nanostructures of boron-based materials have also attracted much attention, and various boron-based nanostructures have been synthesized recently [3]. These boron-based nanostructures are projected to be promising materials for novel nanoelectronic and nanoelectro-mechanical devices, as well as high temperature thermoelectric materials. However, compared to the extensive studies of carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires, little has been done on the property characterization of boron and boride nanostructures.

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