The critical heat flux values of copper substrates were increased from 87 to 125 W/cm2 by using a simple chemical process resulting in growth of micro and nano-scale copper structures on the surface. Pre- and post-test surface analysis revealed that the morphology of the micro and nano-scale features of these copper structures changed during the boiling process accompanied by a change in oxide layer composition. Boiling performance of the micro and nano-structured samples was repeatable when testing at lower heat fluxes.

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